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Understanding Facts About HIV Virus

Rabu, 30 Desember 2009

Understanding Facts About HIV Virus

What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is also known as the Lentivirus group which is stills a family of Retroviruses and has many forms and biological structures, especially with his trademark character of a prolonged illness with an incubation period of the time period from entry of virus into the body to cause illness can be very long.

How to get into our bodies?
HIV can enter the body through sexual transmission is not protected either by someone who was exposed to HIV oral, genital or anal.
This virus can enter through infected blood from someone who is exposed to HIV to others. For example a syringe stabbed once exposed to HIV virus (usually the users of illegal drugs that needle exchange), as well as the recipients of blood transfusions containing HIV virus (but in general these days, blood product transfusions are checked for risk of HIV transmission).

Do not forget that the individuals who are often tattooed body and pierced with a needle that is used interchangeably also at high risk for infection. The risk of transmission was also obtained from mothers to children who are in the womb, though now with the combination of antiretroviral treatment is good and how delivery can reduce the risk of transmission.

What happens after exposure to HIV? What are the symptoms?
When the virus first entered into the human body, a person may not feel it.

Entry of the HIV virus are asymptomatic, but approximately 2 - 4 weeks after exposure to HIV, 80-90 percent of individuals will experience acute symptoms of HIV infection "as flu" which can last longer than 1 week to 28 days. Symptoms can also vary fever, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, diarrhea, prolonged fatigue, rash, until the muscle pains.

Because the non-specific symptoms are sometimes we do not think that this is a sign of HIV infection. Sometimes when patients come to the hospital, often diagnosed as other infectious diseases that have similar symptoms. Moreover, if a patient only complained of symptoms and did not explain about HIV risk factors that had he run.

For that, these symptoms are not typical symptoms that can be used in determining diagnosis of HIV infection, because it does not arise in every case and other infections could have similar symptoms.

After that, go to the period in which latent virus in the body but may not cause symptoms. This period can be very long until even 20 years in some studies could be up to more than 20 years prior to AIDS. Finally, come AIDS, which is the final stage of HIV infection.

What is AIDS?
HIV can lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / AIDS, a condition in the human body that cause our immune system decreases. Our bodies become sick easily and opportunistic infections from pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi) which in normal circumstances not be turned off even usually do not cause disease in healthy people. But another story on the lower body endurance, in which pathogens can infect so she could no longer fight off infections that attack the infection even including the kind that usually can be overcome when sick.

This can be dangerous, because there was no body's defenses can make you more vulnerable to any kind including fungal and other infections that can cause death.

How a doctor can say I get HIV?
In addition to the symptoms and the risk factors of transmission, one needs to conduct lab tests, and this takes a long time and repeatedly. Why repeat? because the antibody levels measured body usually can not be seen in a short time, if you want to be sure, should talk about the exam with your doctor.

How to cure?
For the present, not yet found a drug that can cure this disease let alone kill the virus. However, many new findings HIV therapy that can be used as an immune system enhancer.

Adding the immune system is not by taking drugs immune enhancer on the market but with anti-retroviral drugs to HIV-specific. About treatment should be discussed between the treating physician and the patient so they can choose the best treatment.

Bone Supplements Prevent Breast Cancer

Senin, 14 Desember 2009

Bone Supplements Prevent Breast Cancer

It’s like rowing two islands exceeded, so efficacy of bone tonic which was also useful to prevent breast cancer.

This preliminary conclusion resulting from the study of 151,592 female participants, in which 2216 participants are taking bisphosphonates or amplifier bone to prevent osteoporosis, at the beginning of the study.

Checked during the seven years later it was discovered only 31 percent of participants who drank bone supplements with breast cancer. Positive benefits of this supplement to dominate, even after the researchers put a variety of factors, such as age, smoking habits, weight, hormones, and other factors that affect bone density and breast cancer.

Although this is not enough research to prove the benefits of these supplements for cancer prevention, but this is enough to give hope. Moreover, many women who consume these tablets bone amplifier.

But experts still do not understand how these tablets work, whether because the bones become more resilient against the spread of cancer, or because the drug has side benefits as antitumor capable of preventing the emergence of cancer.

Other studies confirm the benefits of a tablet for the prevention of cancer is a study conducted in Israel experts. In a 2000 study comparing postmenopausal women with breast cancer in 2000 that did not have breast cancer, known from 29 percent of patients taking bisphosphonates first group.

However, these bone tablets is known to have side effects of pain in muscles and joints. Until now the recommended drugs to prevent breast cancer in healthy women is inhibiting hormone called tamoxifen and raloxifene.

Present Kawasaki disease in Indonesia

Kamis, 10 Desember 2009

Present Kawasaki disease in Indonesia

Does Kawasaki disease (PK) that?

PK Tomisaku discovered by Dr. Kawasaki in Japan in 1967 and then known as mucocutaneous lymphnode syndrome. To honor its discoverer, the disease was finally called Kawasaki. In Indonesia, many of us who do not understand this dangerous disease, even though the medical community. This is what led to the diagnosis is often late with all the consequences. Appearance of this disease can also fool the eye that can be diagnosed as measles, allergy medicines, viral infections, or even the mumps disease. The disease is more frequently attacked the Mongol race is primarily attacked a toddler and most often occurs at the age of 1-2 years. In fact, the author never found a PK at a 3-month-old baby who suffered from fever for 18 days.

Incidence rate per year in Japan is the highest in the world, which range from 1 case per thousand children under five. Ranking was followed by Korea and Taiwan. As in the United States ranges from 0.09 (in the white race) to 0.32 (in the Asian-Pacific) per thousand children under five. In Indonesia, the authors found that the case of PK has existed since 1996. However, there are doctors who declared've found before. However, Indonesia has only officially recorded in Kawasaki disease map of the world after a series of case reports of Advani PK et al filed on an international symposium to Kawasaki disease-8 in San Diego, USA, in early 2005.

Predictably, the case in Indonesia was not a little, and according to rough calculations, based on the number of global events and ethnicity in our country, every year there will be 3300-6600 cases of PK. But in reality, the detected cases are still very far below this figure. Between 20 and 40 percent suffered damage to the coronary arteries of heart. Some will recover. However, others were forced to live with heart defects caused by coronary blood flow is disrupted. A small percentage will die of heart damage.

PK until the cause is unknown, although allegedly due to an infection. However, there is no convincing evidence to that effect. Therefore, how to prevent it is also unknown. The disease is also not proved contagious.

The initial symptoms in the acute phase are a sudden high fever and can reach 41 degrees Celsius. Fluctuating fever for at least 5 days, but never reached normal. In untreated children, fever may last for 1-4 weeks without a break. Antibiotics did not help. Approximately 2-3 days after fever, other symptoms began to appear in stages, namely red blotches on the body similar to measles. However, symptoms of a cold cough dominant measles are usually mild or nonexistent in the PK.

Other symptoms that arise are the two red eyes, but without the dirt, swollen lymph nodes on one side of the neck which sometimes suspected mumps disease (Parotitis), resembling a strawberry red tongue, lips red as well and sometimes cracked, and the palm hands and feet were red and slightly swollen. Sometimes a child complains of pain in the joints. In the healing phase, exfoliation occurs at the tips of your fingers and feet and then come across the line-shaped basin at the foot and hand nails (Beau's lines).

PK patients should be hospitalized in the hospital and get control of the child cardiologists. The most feared complication is in the heart (occurs in 20-40 percent of patients) as they may damage the coronary arteries. Complications to the heart usually starts happening after a day-to-7 and 8 since the beginning of fever. At first, these vessels can occur dilation and constriction can occur inside or blockage. As a result, blood flow to the heart muscle that can cause disturbed damage to the heart muscle known as myocardial infarction.

Examination of the heart becomes very important things, including ECG and echocardiography (cardiac ultrasound). Sometimes ultrafast CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) or cardiac catheterization is required in severe cases. The laboratory for this disease is not typical. Normally, white blood cell count, blood creep rate, and increased C reactive protein in acute phase. Thus, the diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs alone, so the doctor's experience was needed. In the healing phase, an increase in blood platelets, and this will facilitate the occurrence of thrombus, or blood clots that clog coronary arteries of heart.

The drugs are an absolute must given by intravenous immunoglobulin for 10-12 hours. Drug plasma obtained from blood donors is powerful, both to relieve the symptoms of PK and reduce the risk of heart damage. But the expensive price to be constraints. Price of one gram of around is Rp 1 million. PK patients require immunoglobulin 2 g per kg of body weight. For example, a child weighing 15 kg requires 30 grams, at a price of about Rp 30 million. Patients are also given salicylic acid to prevent heart damage and coronary artery blockage. If there are no complications, then the child can be discharged in a few days.

In the case of late and had coronary artery damage, need of hospitalization is longer and intensive treatment to prevent further heart damage. If the drugs do not work, then sometimes required coronary bypass surgery (coronary bypass) or even, though very rarely, a heart transplant. Death can occur in 1-5 percent of patients who are treated late, and a peak occurs at 15-45 days after the initial fever. Nevertheless, sudden death may occur many years after the acute phase. PK also can damage the heart valves (especially mitral valve) that can cause sudden death a few years later. Possible recurrence of this disease is about 3 percent.

In patients who clinically had fully recovered even say that the coronary arteries will have abnormalities in the inner lining. This allows the occurrence of coronary heart disease, later in young adulthood. If found in acute coronary heart attacks in young adults, it may need to consider that the patient may have exposed PK as a child. May we all need to be aware that the disease does not cause further casualties?

Sperm Have Nose

Rabu, 09 Desember 2009

Sperm Have Nose

Want to know how the sperm could find a ready fertilized egg in the womb? A study conducted by Dr. Marc Spehr of Rohr University Bochum in Germany managed to identify an olfactory odor on the surface of sperm.

Known, this odor olfactory task sperm move toward the source of a particular scent. This mechanism implies that the sperm depends on the sense of smell to find a ready fertilized egg.

Once explanation Science researchers reported at the end of March. Hopefully, further study of this process will one day be useful for researchers to create alternative contraception or even a new means to support fertility.

Olfactory odor on the sperm that recognize that the research team identified as hOR17-4. This substance is a group of proteins known as the identifier smell (olfactory receptors), which served to detect the scent.

Although many of these protein groups found in the nose, some of them, such as hOR17-4, were found in all parts of the body. Previous researchers have known that the olfactory receptors are also found in sperm, but what works in a place that was not clearly known.

In his research, Spehr and his colleagues describe hOR17-4 on various chemicals to see which could make it the active protein. From there they found, with a substance called bourgeonal, human sperm become active and start moving toward the source of these chemicals.

Bourgeonal is a synthetic ingredients used in perfume industry and sense-it is not a substance that is used to guide the body toward the sperm to the egg. "We do not see the molecules in bourgeonal there is also the human body, but was trying to learn composition. Who knows what that contributed in the female genital tract, "said Spehr.

Just FYI, according to Spehr, researchers have found between 20 and 40 olfactory receptors like hOR17-4, concentrated in the testicles. However, it is unclear whether the egg to reach all the sperm cells using only one course or complete protein.

In an editorial commenting on the study, Dr. F. Donner Babcock noted that if the correct sperm used smell to an egg, it will be useful for handling cases of infertility. "It is not possible a number of clinical infertility is caused by damage to the signal emitted by the egg cell. Or it could also translate the sperm of the received signal, "said Babcock.

Added, in the future, diagnostic tests designed to detect such abnormalities could explain why some people can not get pregnant.

Herpes, Not Simply Sexual Disease

Senin, 07 Desember 2009

Herpes, Not Simply Sexual Disease

Herpes long been regarded as a "dirty" disease because it related to sexual activity that is not healthy. Yet, not all diseases are caused by herpes sexual activity.

Jo, private sector employees aged 24 years, felt itchy and sore in the crotch. Her skin was blistered as firing. Once seen, it seems that the rash covered like smallpox. "It feels sore and hot. Touched underwear just very sore," said Jo.

Uncomfortable with burning and itching sensation, he also went to the doctor. How surprised when the results of the examination the doctor said he was exposed to herpes. As far as he knew, herpes is a disease which is transmitted through sexual activity. "Actually, I never do sexual activity with another person," said Jo.

Advanced smallpox
"Actually, not all herpes from sexual activity that is not healthy. So the assumption that herpes is always caused by sexual activity is wrong," said Dr. Midi Haryani, Sp.KK, skin and venereal specialists RS Hermina Jatinegara.

In the medical world, herpes is another form of smallpox. This is a skin inflammation characterized by the formation of bubbles of water in groups.

Described by Dr. Midi, herpes divided into large groups, namely herpes simplex or genital herpes and herpes zoster. Genital herpes is an infection or inflammation of the skin, especially in the genitals, caused by herpes simplex virus (VHS).

"Herpes is inherent in the assumption that society, ie transmitted through sexual activity is not healthy," Dr.Midi calls. Genital herpes can be experienced by anybody; usually the patient or her partner had a history of sexual contact with another person.

The good news is that circumcised men have a lower risk of disease due to herpes genital mucus membrane becomes thickened and normal skin, so it is more difficult to catch the man who had not circumcised a thin mucus membrane.

Meanwhile, herpes zoster, or shingles caused by varicella-zoster virus. Bubble liquid shingles can occur anywhere throughout the body. "It could appear in the buttocks, on the cheek, the hands, even in the forehead. Usually the appearance of the place-that's all, will not move or spread to other places," Dr. Midi.

Type of herpes which is also known by the name of this snake pox called chicken pox disease advanced. Because the type of virus that attacks the same. It's just that, in herpes zoster, a larger bubble liquid and clustered in certain parts. Anyone who had a chicken pox potentially affected by herpes zoster.

Do not let broken
What is important in dealing with herpes is to keep the fluid-filled bubble is not broken. One way could be to give the powder to help lubricate the skin.

"If broken, can be a doorway for other germs. It makes no secondary infections that occur in addition to herpes," mentioned Dr. Midi.

Therapy to treat herpes is with the provision of antiviral drugs. Acyclovir drugs are suitable to cure herpes. An important fact in dealing with herpes is to convince the patient to consult his doctor. The reason is, if it is suspected she suffered from herpes, the patient will usually be embarrassed or feel uncomfortable if you have treatment.

"Better to be treating yourself to a doctor, because this disease can be transmitted to a partner," said Dr. Midi. "Moreover, herpes can also be transmitted to newborns."

In pregnant women, herpes must be healed before the time of labor. If it came down, he said, can cause defects in the eye to meningitis in infants.

One thing to remember, herpes may reappear despite treatment. "When the bubble of fluid is lost, it does not mean the virus is gone. Herpes virus is still present in the body, they hide in the spinal cord and wait for a chance to strike back," he said.

Various causes could be a culprit of herpes came back. The most common is the decrease of endurance. Conditions such as stress tired minds can also trigger the return of herpes. (GHS / Michael)

New Weapon Against Cholesterol

Minggu, 06 Desember 2009

New Weapon Against Cholesterol

Excess cholesterol can cause buildup of fat that can clog blood vessels that can cause heart attacks and strokes. Particles that carrying cholesterol throughout the blood vessels, popularly known as "good particles" (HDL) or "bad particles" (LDL).

Called bad cholesterol when excess is dragged causing fat accumulation or blockage in the artery walls (atherosclerosis), whereas both the name given when they are able to bring cholesterol back to the liver for disposal.

Now, scientists have created the small particles in laboratory-like particle carriers (carrier) is good, so that cholesterol can be transported before they could settle and cause plaques. Particle surface is coated in fat and protein so they could tie themselves with cholesterol for subsequent transport to the blood vessels.

"These particles in the future will be important in the treatment of cardiovascular disease management," said Dr.Andre Nel, head of division of nanomedicine and the director of the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Nel explains, these particles have the same shape as the natural HDL particles circulating in the blood. This artificial substance carrier capable of cleaning the blood vessels and there are plaques can rupture and cause a stroke or heart attack.

HDL particles are made later is not only useful for cardiovascular therapy but also diagnosis. To facilitate monitoring, the experts also put metal objects and gold in the center of the particle. "So these particles will be visible through imaging technology," said Nel.

Studies in the field of nanotechnology, nanoparticles that produce good cholesterol (HDL) was also done by scientists from universities Northwestern University and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Manhattan.

Scientists now also has completed research on animal testing and will soon conduct further studies in larger animal models. "If there are no proven side effects, we can make it as a drug to prevent the plaque in arteries. This will be a revolution in cardiology," he said.