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Selasa, 25 Mei 2010


WHETHER 'Shopaholic' THAT?

These last few years, or a compulsive shopper Shopaholic has been a concern of women's magazines and television programs. They also have been a subject of conversation pop psychology. Although the mass media uses the term with a somewhat "haphazard", actually a Shopaholic often feel isolated, very scared, and losing self-control.

No doubt, we live in a society that is very "fond of shopping." We live, based on the wealth that we have and many of us live in the entanglement of debt. Many people, whatever their income, look at shopping as a hobby. They spent the weekend with shopping, spending money on items they do not have, and often regretted it later. Does this indicate that they are in trouble? Not necessarily.

A Shopaholic is spending out of control. They will continue spending despite the far deep in debt. They will be spending time emotionally depressed, and using shopping as a survival mechanism. They do not stop spending because they really find pleasure in shopping. They buy things because they feel they HAVE to. A Shopaholic is someone who is out of control.

YOU ARE ONE 'Shopaholic'?
Consider the following statements whose "True" or "False" on each.
  1. When I feel depressed, I usually spend.
  2. I spent a lot of money for stuff I do not have but I do not need.
  3. I feel crazy when I shop but after that I do not is too concerned about my purchases.
  4. I have a lot of clothes I never wear and a number of tools / equipment countless and I've never used it.
  5. I often feel reckless / crazy and out of control when I shop.
  6. I often lie to friends and family about the money I spent.
  7. I feel very confused and disturbed by what I do shopping habits
  8. After the shopping frenzy, lost my orientation and sometimes feel depressed.
  9. Although I feel very confused tertang my debts, I continued shopping.
  10. My shopping activities bnayak disebakan relationship issues with yourself or with others.

Did you answer "true" four times or more of the statements above? If so, it seems you have a serious problem with lust shopping.

If most of your answers to this quiz statement "True", you probably need more than just tips that are economical to control you’re spending. If you begin to disrupt the shopping pattern of your life, consider to visit a psychologist. He will help you to find out why your spending habits are very difficult to control. Shopaholic usually classified as "distortion of obsessive-compulsive disorder" that can be cured with the help of a psychologist. With patience, persistence and assistance from the professionals, a Shopaholic can return control of his life.

TIPS FOR SIMPLE not wasteful AND THERAPY FOR 'Shopaholic'

  1. Get used to not take credit cards, checkbook and an ATM card before you go shopping. Use cash.
  2. If you are interested in buying something, do not allow yourself to follow that urge. Make a "time limit" to think. If until a few days later you still want it, maybe now you can consider buying it.
  3. Make a budget on a piece of paper and do not buy anything outside the budget.
  4. Write each need to be purchased over the past two weeks it will make you know exactly where your money goes.


Selasa, 18 Mei 2010


Understanding Menstruation
Menstruation is the periodic bleeding of the uterus that begins approximately 14 days after ovulation (Bobak, 2004)

Menstruation is the periodic vaginal bleeding due to the release layer of the uterine endometrium. Normal menstrual function is the result of interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary with associated changes in the target tissue in the normal reproductive tract, the ovary plays an important role in this process, because it seems responsible for setting cyclic changes and long menstrual cycle (Greenspan , 1998).

Menstrual Cycle
1) Clinical menstrual

Most mid-reproductive age women, menstrual bleeding occurs every 25-35 days with a median cycle length was 28 days. Women with ovulatorik cycle, time interval between the beginning of menstruation until ovulation - follicular phase - varying length. Cycle observed in women who ovulate. Time interval between the beginning of menstrual bleeding - luteal phase - relatively constant with an average of 14 ± 2 days in most women (Grenspan, 1998).

Length of menstrual blood discharge also varies; in general the length of 4 to 6 days, but between two to eight days can still be considered normal. Menstrual blood expenditure consisted of fragments of Flaking endrometrium mixed with blood that number does not necessarily. Normally blood is liquid, but if the blood flow velocity is too large, clots of various sizes are very likely to be found. Unfreeze menstrual blood is caused by an active local fibrinolytic system in the endometrium.

The average amount of blood lost during normal women during a menstrual period has been determined by several research groups, ie 25-60 ml. Normal Hb concentration of 14 g per dl, and iron content of 3.4 mg per g Hb, blood volume contains 12-29 mg of iron and describes the loss of blood the same with 0.4 to 1.0 mg of iron per day, or 150 cycles up to 400 mg per year (Cunningham, 1995).

2) Hormonal aspects during the menstrual cycle
Mammals, especially humans, their reproductive cycle involving various organs, ie uterus, ovaries, vagina, and mammary held within a certain time or the existence of synchronization, it is possible the arrangement, coordination, called hormones. Hormones are chemical substances produced by endocrine glands, which are directly channeled in circulation and affect specific organs called target organs. The hormones that are related to the menstrual cycle,

a) The hormones produced by the pituitary gonadotropin:
o The luteinizing hormone (LH)
o Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
o Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)

b) Ovarian Steroids
Ovaries produce progestrin, androgens, and estrogens. Many of the resulting steroid is also secreted by the adrenal gland or can be formed in peripheral tissue via the conversion of other steroid precursors; consequence, plasma levels of these hormones may not directly reflect the steroidogenic activity of ovaries.

3) Phases of the menstrual cycle
Every one there is four phases of the menstrual cycle changes that occur in the uterus. These phases are the result of highly coordinated cooperation between the anterior pituitary, ovaries, and uterus. Phases are:

a) Phase menstruation or deskuamasi
This phase, the endometrium regardless of the uterine wall accompanied by bleeding and layers that are still intact only the stratum basale. This phase lasts for 3-4 days.

b) post-menstrual phase or phases of regeneration
This phase there was healing of wounds caused by the escape of the endometrium. This condition started since the phase of menstruation occurred and lasted for ± 4 days.

c) Phase intermenstum or proliferative phase
After the wound healed, will occur in endometrial thickening ± 3.5 mm. This phase lasted from day 5 to day 14 of the menstrual cycle.

Proliferative phase is divided into three stages, namely:
·         The early proliferative phase, occurred on day 4 to day 7. This phase can be recognized from the thin surface epithelium and the presence of epithelial regeneration.
·         The proliferation of intermediate phase, occurred on day 8 today-to-10. This phase is a transitional form and can be recognized from the epithelial surface of the piston-shaped high.
·         late proliferative phase, lasting between day-to-11 until day 14. This phase can be recognized from the uneven surfaces and found the number of mitosis.

d) The premenstrual phase or secretory phase
This phase lasted from day 14 until the 28th. This phase is approximately fixed endometrial thickness, but the shape of the gland turned into a long and winding out the sap increasingly real. The interior of the endometrial cells are glycogen and lime needed as food for a fertilized egg.

Secretory phase were divided into two stages, namely:
·         The early secretory phase, this phase endometrium thinner than the previous phase because of the loss of fluid.
·         Phase secretion further, at this phase in the endometrial glands to grow and become more serpentine and secretion began to sap that contains glycogen and fat. The end of this period, the endometrial stromal cells to change direction; decidua, particularly those surrounding the arterial vessels. This situation allows the nidasi (Hanafiah, 1997).

4) Mechanism of the menstrual cycle

During menstruation, the day is taken as the beginning of the first day of the new cycle. Will happen again increase until it reaches levels of FSH 5 ng / ml (equivalent to 10 MUI / ml), under the synergistic effect of both gonadotropins, these developing follicles produce estradiol in significant amounts. Increased serum constantly in the late follicular phase would suppress FSH from the pituitary. Two days before ovulation, estradiol levels reached 150-400 pg / ml. Content exceeds the threshold value for the expenditure excitatory pre-ovulatory gonadotropin. As a result of FSH and LH in serum increased and reached a peak one day before ovulation. The same time, levels of estradiol will be back down. Maximum levels of LH ranged between 8 and 35 ng / ml, equivalent to 30-40 MUI / ml, and FSH between 4-10 ng / ml, equivalent to 15-45 MUI / ml.

Occurrence of peak LH and FSH on day 14, then the follicle at this time will start one day later rupture and ovulation will occur. Along with this began the formation and maturation of the corpus luteum is accompanied by rising levels of progesterone, whereas gonadotropins began to fall again. Increased progesterone does not always give the sense, that ovulation has occurred with the good because in some women that do not occur ovulation basal body temperature remains were found and in accordance with the luteal phase endometrium.

Early luteal phase, along with the maturation of the corpus luteum. Progesterone secretion continuously increased and reached levels of between 6 and 20 ng / ml. Estradiol is released mainly from large follicles that have not undergone atresia, also seen in the luteal phase and the concentrations were higher than during the early or mid-follicular phase. Maximal estradiol and progesterone production were found between day 20 and 23

All About Endometriosis

Selasa, 11 Mei 2010

All About Endometriosis

Endometriosis lately becomes very popular term. A disease that affects only women each year shows an increase in the cases although the data certainly can not be known. Women seem to need to be aware that the disease often characterized by severe pain during this period. Because, besides can reduce fertility or fertility potential, this disease is often very difficult to be detected.

According MedicaStore, endometriosis is a disease that triggered the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The endometrium is the tissue that limits the inside of the uterus. In the menstrual cycle, endometrial thickness will increase as a preparation for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, then this layer will be separated and removed as menstruation.

This disorder is genetically derived allegedly discovered six times more often in women who have a mother or sister with this complaint are not compared. Endometriosis can occur at any time during the reproductive age women and become a big problem because it can cause infertility.

The cause of endometriosis is not known with certainty, but there are several theories proposed so far, namely:

    * Menstruation Retrograde, where most of the flow of menstrual blood from the womb out into the abdominal cavity through the fallopian
    * Impaired immune system that allow endometrial cells attach and grow
    * Genetic Abnormalities
    * Network endometrial spread via lymph system and blood flow
    * Environmental factors, such as exposure to dioxins

Endometriosis can cause infertility due to various circumstances the following:

    * Hormonal Parameters compared with normal cycles, follicular phase of endometriosis patients with a shorter, lower estradiol levels, and the peak value of LH (LH surge) is reduced. Follicles are formed during the LH surge tended to smaller size.
    * Luteinized Unruptured follicle syndrome (LUF) LUF is the failure to release eggs from the ovaries.
    * Effect of peritoneal endometriosis patients found an increase in the number and activity of peritoneal fluid and the peritoneal macrophages.
    * Immune System Endometriosis affects the immune system and can directly lead to infertility.
    * Production of Prostaglandins Prostaglandins allegedly produced by young endometrial cells, causing spasms or
    * Contraction of muscles. Because of the influence of prostaglandins, tuba becomes rigid and can not take the eggs produced by the ovaries and adhesions occur rejection fetus in the womb. Besides the movement of sperm is also reduced thus affecting its ability to penetrate the egg.

Endometriosis can occur in many places and affect the symptoms caused. The most common place is in the back of the uterus, the tissue between the rectum and vagina and rectum surface. But sometimes also found in the valopii tube, ovarian, cervical strap muscles, bladder and pelvic sidewall.

Following the menstrual cycle, each month this tissue outside the uterus has thickened and bleeding. This bleeding does not have exit channels such as menstrual blood, but collect in the pelvic cavity and cause pain. The formation of endometriosis in ovarian is causing chocolate cysts. Due to the chronic tissue inflammation, scar tissue formed and adhesions reproductive organs. The egg itself enmeshed in a thick scar tissue that can not be discharged. A third of patients with endometriosis do not have any symptoms other than infertility.

Other patients are experiencing many symptoms with the primary symptoms of pain. Endometriosis is not related to the degree of pain, severe endometriosis can be caused only mild pain.

Symptoms often arise:

    * Pain, great pain of endometriosis is determined by the location
          o pain during menstruation
          o pain during and after intercourse
          o ovulation pain
            pain on examination by a physician
    * Bleeding
          o bleeding a lot and the old at the time of menstruation
          o spotting before menstruation
          o irregular menstrual
          o dark menstrual blood comes out before the end of menstruation or menstrual
    * Complaints and small bowel
          o pain with defecation
          o blood in feces
          o diarrhea, constipation and colic
          o pain before, during and after urination

A woman with typical symptoms or unexplained infertility is usually suspected of having endometriosis. Additionally certain laboratory examinations can help, such as levels of Ca - 125 in blood and endometrial aromatase activity. But it means the most reliable diagnosis is by laparoscopy, which is done by inserting the laparoscope through a small incision tool below the navel. With this tool the doctor can view the pelvic organs, cysts and endometriosis tissue directly.

Treatment given depends on the symptoms; plan to have children, age and extent of the affected area. Management of endometriosis with drugs do not cure, endometriosis will relapse after treatment is stopped. In women with mild to severe endometriosis, especially in cases of infertility, so needed surgery to remove endometrial tissue and as much as possible to restore reproductive function.

   1. Hormonal treatment
      Hormonal treatment aims to stop ovulation and allow the endometrial deposits to regress and die.
      These drugs are pseudo-pregnancy or pseudo-menopause. Used are:
          * Derivative of testosterone
                o Danazol
                o Gestrinone (Dimetriose)
          * Progestogen
                o Medroxyprogesterone (Provera)
                o Norethisterone (Primolut)
                o Dydrogesterone (Duphaston) ·
          * GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone) analog
                o Leuprorelin (Prostap)
                o Goserelin (Zoladex)
                Nafarelin o (Synarel)
                o Buserelin (Suprecur)
          * Combination contraceptive pill

All of these hormonal treatments through clinical trials have proven the effectiveness of which is roughly the same. Side effects of these drugs differ from one person to another.

Hormonal Treatment Side Effects

Bleeding between periods, mood swings, depression, atropik vaginitis

Weight gain, acne, the sound gets heavier, hair growth, heat flow, vaginal dryness, swelling of ankles, muscle cramps, bleeding between periods, decreased breast size, mood swings, disturbances of liver function, lipid metabolism disorders, carpal tunnel syndrome .

GnRH analogue
Heat flow, vaginal dryness, loss of calcium from bones, mood swings.

Contraception Pills
Stomach swelling, swollen breasts, increased appetite combination, ankle swelling, nausea, bleeding between periods, deep venous thrombosis.

   2. Surgery
      Surgery can be performed by laparoscopy or surgery, depending on the extent of the invasion of endometriosis. In patients with severe endometriosis hormonal therapy followed by surgery. Often the treatment given before surgery to reduce the number and size of the endometriosis tissue. At the time of surgery all visible endometriosis tissue and can be reached must be removed, with no incision or burning by laser beams. Hormone treatment given after surgery to reduce inflammation and clean up the remaining endometrial tissue.
   3. Radical Surgery
      Surgery is done by lifting the uterus and ovaries in addition to cleaning the endometriosis tissue. This is only done on women with severe endometriosis who did not experience improvements with other medications and does not expect a pregnancy. After the surgery is given estrogen replacement therapy, since the appointment of the uterus and ovaries cause the same consequences with menopause. Replacement therapy was given 4-6 months after surgery so that all the remaining endometrial tissue was gone and not re-formed under the influence of estrogen.

Endometriosis cause infertility by many mechanisms of ovulation disorders, tissue adhesions, tubal blockage, ectopic pregnancy and other reasons unknown. Successful pregnancy after treatment with surgery and hormone therapy ranged from 40-70% depending on the severity of endometriosis.

Seeking pregnancy after endometriosis treatment is done by:

   1. Wait
   2. Ovulation induction and intra-uterine insemination
   3. In vitro fertilization (tube baby)

So, from now on do not hesitate to go to the doctor to consult an expert if you experience symptoms of this disease. Although many hospitals (RS) and the clinic has been providing surgical facilities. However, is not it better to detect the earliest stage of the required surgery?


Senin, 03 Mei 2010


Problem of sex is very diverse. Disturbance can be started from the desire that is not lit, pain during sex, until the erection disorders. Many of the sex disorders that can be overcome using drugs and therapies. However, one of sexual disorders is classified as difficult to deal with addiction.

Sexual addiction is often considered not a problem for many people. In fact, for the sufferer and his life partner, the disorder can be very destructive. Not only damage the sufferer's personal life, but also the social environment, family, and especially spouses patients (see box: The Addictions and the result).

According experts, addiction sexual are activities sex who accordance sizes inurnment pertained outside control. Sex addiction sufferers feel compelled to acquire and immerse themselves in sexual activities, although aware of all potential risks facing.

Sex can be addictive as alcohol and drugs. When we do sex, our body release the chemicals substance that make our bodies to be comfortable. Some people become addicted to remove these chemical compounds and become obsessed to get again and again and again, feeling comfortable caused.

As for the other addictions, the body is getting used to the release of these chemical compounds. Addict's body needs more numbers, more and more, and more and more, which means that sex continues to feel the need, it is never satisfied.

Among the fulfillment of sexual needs and high chemical, there are emerged triumphant too. It is often identified with the feelings of shame, regret, sorrow, pleading, and nervous. Addiction sufferers can feel isolated, isolated, and powerless to change their behavior. Now, along with continued turning circle is endless, people with addictions continue to have sex in an attempt to escape the feeling that handcuff.

More than 6 percent by conservative estimates, 3 to 6 percent of the population of people suffering from addiction to sex and 20 percent are women. They come from various walks of life. However, numbers three and six percent were estimated to be too low from the actual number of sufferers.

Given the prevalent sex addiction is accompanied by feelings of shame and disgraceful, according to the site owned by Dr. Patrick Carnes, an expert consultant and a leading sex addiction,, so sufferers often find it difficult to get help. For this reason also, the type of patient profile sex addiction is difficult to find.

Since the opening of the Internet with a variety of cheap sexual services without having to open a self-interested person’s identity, experts can only know that people with sex addiction that rose sharply, without knowing their exact identity. With limited assistance services for patients, experts believe the number of people with sex addiction that will continue to rise.

Then, as if the signs of those who suffer from sex addiction? Dr Patrick Carnes suggests the existence of 10 possible signs that need to be aware of:

  1. Feel that your behavior is not restrained.
  2. Aware that could arise due to severe if you continue with that behavior.
  3. Feeling unable to stop the behavior you even aware of the consequences.
  4. Fixed hunt destructive activities and / or high-risk.
  5. Continue to expect to stop or control what you do and act actively to limit the dangerous activity you do.
  6. Using sexual fantasies as a way to cope with difficult feelings or situations.
  7. Need sex constantly to keep it felt good.
  8. Suffered from the feelings that keep swirling around sexual activity.
  9. Spending a lot of time to plan, do, or regret and do more sexual activity.
  10. Ignoring the social activities, the activities office, and recreational activities are important for sex. Need to recognize when you see one of the signs listed above in your behavior, the most important steps that can be done is to admit that sexual addiction is a real problem and can not go away or goes away by itself. You must choose one's attitude personally responsible for the recovery of the interference, which could be you're experiencing.

Generally, people with sexual disorders had found it difficult to change their own behavior. However, at least little by little you should be able to minimize the behavior as depicted on the signs at the top although sometimes the urge to repeat the cycle coming acts too strong to be resisted. A professional therapist can help you to understand what really happened and take steps to push you to lifestyle changes toward a healthier sexual.

Conversely, if you suspect that your spouse is a patient addicted to sex, you should have helped to change the behavior. Mental attitude you need to prepare yourself is, nobody will recover from addiction except to accept that they suffer from a disorder and want to change. Because of that, help strengthen your resolve couples who are addicted to getting stronger willingness to make changes.

It's messy, painful, and confusing a couple who are addicted to sex. If in Western society, even the available help for those who have a spouse sex addict. Assistance could be in the form of personal and companion groups (support groups). Well, although not yet available here such service, you can search for photography’s insights, such as the Sex Addicts Anonymous, an international site provides information on assistance from the UK in or at the British Association of Sexual and Relationship therapists, who offer personal sex therapist directory at: Forms of addiction and consequences of sex addiction may exhibit various forms, but generally recognizable from the behavior that feels out of control. These behaviors include:

- Spend plenty of time to enjoy the products of pornography
- Masturbation uncontrollably
- Exhibitionism
- Voyeurism
- Fetishes
- A high-risk sex
- Prostitution
- Phone sex and sex over the internet
- Infidelity
- Having sex with a new partner, then known

According to Dr Carrie, the survey revealed a result of the behavior of sex addiction, among others:

70 percent experienced severe disruption with 40 percent losing his life partner spouse 27 percent of lost opportunities in a career 40 percent experienced unwanted pregnancies 72 percent obsessed suicidal 17 percent attempted suicide 68 percent exposed to sexually transmitted diseases.